Just discovered that I can use Stellarium to depict observed (geocentric) movements of the solar system.
This video illustrates the apparent geocentric movement of the Sun, the Moon and five major planets around the Earth over a period of one Hindu solar year (14 Apr, 2013 – 14 Apr, 2014). This video is best viewed at the 1080p setting and on full screen mode.
Key points to note are:
The Hindu solar years starts with the Sun at the start of Mesha (Aries). This point is 24 days after the vernal equinox, due to the precession of the equinoxes, i.e. circa 200 AD the start of Mesha and the vernal equinox coincided. Subsequently the vernal equinox has changed position while the start of Mesha has not.
Each Rashi is spread over 2 Hours on this grid (there are 12 Rashis but this grid is divided into 24 Hours)
The equator circle intersects the ecliptic at the vernal and autumnal equinox points.
The Sun crosses:
- the 6h point on Jun 21 (summer solstice) and starts its southward movement (Dakshinayana)
- the 12h point on Sep 22 (autumnal equinox)
- the 18h point of Dec 21 (winter solstice) and starts its northward movement (Uttarayana)
- the 0h point on Mar 20, 2014 (vernal equinox)
When the Sun is “inside” the equator circle (for six months), it is overhead the northern hemisphere. This period is referred to as Devayana in Hindu astronomy. When the Sun is “outside” the equator circle (for the next six months), it is overhead the southern hemisphere. This period is referred to as Pitrayana in Hindu astronomy.
The retrograde movements are Mercury and Venus are easily observable. That of Mars is observable towards the end of the video. The very slow movement of Jupiter and Saturn too are easily observable. So are the phenomenon of new moon and full moon.